Selasa, 13 Agustus 2013

BUKTI-BUKTI ARKEOLOGIS ALKITAB-12

Mengintip Isi Rumah Herodes

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dailymail.co.uk
Makam Herodes yang ditemukan di Herodium setelah 40 tahun pencarian oleh mendiang Prof. Ehud Netzer dari Hebrew University merupakan salah satu kebanggaan dalam pameran ini. Sebanyak 250 artefak digali selama 40 tahun di Herodium, istana "Raja Pembangunan" yang ada di puncak bukit gersang.


dailymail.co.uk
Barang-barang kuno tersebut datang dari periode ketika Romawi menduduki Tanah Suci dan menunjuk Herodes sebagai penguasa Yudea. Herodes memerintah daerah yang kini menjadi Israel dan Tepi Barat selama lebih dari 30 tahun dan meninggal pada tahun 


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keempat SM

dailymail.co.uk
Pameran ini sepenuhnya didedikasikan untuk "Herodes yang Agung", pembangun Israel dan salah satu figur paling kontroversial sepanjang sejarah Yahudi. Rekonstruksi besar-besaran dan penemuan baru dari Kerajaan Herodes di Herodium, Yeriko, dan situs lain akan dipamerkan di sini.


dailymail.co.uk
Hasil kurasi Dudi Mevorach dan Silvia Rozenberg tersebut akan menampilkan barang-barang pribadi Raja Herodes yang ada di kerajaannya, ornamen, serta makamnya sendiri. Pameran tersebut menampilkan perlengkapan yang ada di dalam "rumah" sang raja, termasuk perlengkapan mandi dan dekorasi rumahnya.


YERUSALEM, KOMPAS.com — Mengintip cara hidup raja-raja yang memerintah dunia ini pada era sebelum Masehi bisa kita lakukan dengan mengunjungi museum, salah satunya melalui pameran bertajuk "Herod the Great: The King's Final Journey (Herodes yang Agung: Perjalanan Terakhir Sang Raja)" di Museum Israel, Yerusalem.
Artefak yang ditampilkan dalam pameran ini adalah cahaya baru bagi informasi mengenai peran Herodes dalam bidang politik, arsitektur, dan estetika selama ia memerintah (37-4 SM). Pameran tersebut berlokasi di Bella and Harry Wexner Gallery, The Israel Museum, mulai hari ini, Rabu (13/2/2013) hingga 5 Oktober 2013 mendatang.
Hasil kurasi Dudi Mevorach dan Silvia Rozenberg tersebut akan menampilkan barang-barang pribadi Raja Herodes yang ada di kerajaannya, ornamen, serta makamnya sendiri. Pameran tersebut menampilkan perlengkapan yang ada di dalam "rumah" sang raja, termasuk perlengkapan mandi dan dekorasi rumahnya.
Menurut situs resmi The Israel Museum, pameran ini sepenuhnya didedikasikan untuk "Herodes yang Agung", pembangun Israel dan salah satu figur paling kontroversial sepanjang sejarah Yahudi. Rekonstruksi besar-besaran dan penemuan baru dari Kerajaan Herodes di Herodium, Yeriko, dan situs lain akan dipamerkan di sini. Barang-barang artefak tersebut dipamerkan kepada masyarakat umum untuk pertama kalinya.
Raja pembangunan
Makam Herodes yang ditemukan di Herodium setelah 40 tahun pencarian oleh mendiang Prof Ehud Netzer dari Hebrew University merupakan salah satu kebanggaan dalam pameran ini. Sebanyak 250 artefak digali selama 40 tahun di Herodium, istana "Raja Pembangunan" yang ada di puncak bukit gersang. Tempat tersebut dapat dicapai dengan sebuah perjalanan singkat dari Yerusalem.
Pameran tersebut juga memajang beberapa patung dan bust atau patung berukuran kecil yang menampilkan figur tokoh dari kepala hingga bagian dada. Selain itu, pameran ini akan memajang sebuah bak mandi yang digali dari rumah pemandian di situs tersebut.
Barang-barang kuno tersebut datang dari periode ketika Romawi menduduki Tanah Suci dan menunjuk Herodes sebagai penguasa Yudea. Herodes memerintah daerah yang kini menjadi Israel dan Tepi Barat selama lebih dari 30 tahun dan meninggal pada tahun keempat SM.
Herodes dikenal sebagai pemimpin yang banyak membangun istana-istana dan benteng. Di sisi lain, ia juga dikenal sebagai "pembunuh bayi" dalam cerita tradisi Kristiani.
Bukan hanya sosok Herodes yang penuh kontroversi. Pembukaan pameran ini juga tengah memicu gejolak antara Israel dan Palestina mengenai siapa yang memiliki hak untuk menggali artefak-artefak tersebut.
Orang-orang Palestina mengeluhkan barang-barang pameran diambil dari Tepi Barat, tanah yang diduduki Palestina pada 1967 dalam Perang Timur Tengah. Mereka mengatakan bahwa artefak digali tanpa sepengetahuan mereka. Bahkan, Menteri Pariwisata dan Benda Antik Palestina Rula Ma'ayah mengatakan bahwa semua aktivitas arkeologis Israel di Tepi Barat adalah kegiatan ilegal.
"Banyak lokasi penggalian (di teritori Palestina) jatuh di bawah kendali Israel dan kami tidak dapat mencapai tempat tersebut. Semua tindakan penggalian di teritori yang sudah dikuasai melanggar hukum, tetapi Israel membawa mereka keluar. Bahkan, jika mereka tidak menggali, mereka tidak memungkinkan kita untuk melakukannya," kata Ma'ayah.
Direktur Museum James Snyder mengatakan, hasil penggalian arkeologis di Tepi Barat semuanya dibawa keluar menurut konvensi internasional dan protokol yang ada dalam perjanjian damai sementara Israel-Palestina. Snyder mengatakan, ia tidak mengetahui adanya diskusi dengan pihak Palestina yang berwenang atas kegiatan arkeologis mengenai pameran ini. Selain itu, ia juga mengatakan bahwa tidak mungkin mempelajari artefak temuan mereka tersebut, tepat di situs di Herodium. Relikui tersebut, menurutnya, pada akhirnya akan dikembalikan ke Herodium setelah adanya fasilitas memadai untuk menyimpannya.


MASADA  King Herod's Fortress Palace, site of Zealots' Last Stand; scale models, reconstructions
WHO
 The beautiful, doomed Hasmonean princess Mariamme fled there, but her husband King Herod killed her anyway. For the dynasty of Herod, see BIBLE PEOPLE: HERODThe Zealots made their last ditch stand against the Romans at Masada, and then committed mass suicide rather than surrender. 
WHAT
A remote hilltop fortress famous for the lavish palace built by Herod the Great, and the Zealots' resistance against the Roman siege in 73AD.
WHERE
Occupying the entire top of a plateau near the southwest coast of the Dead Sea
WHEN
 First fortified by the Hasmoneans in circa 100BC, destroyed by the Roman forces after the fall of Jerusalem in 70AD

MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,The site of Masada
The site of Masada, showing the plateau on which it is built. At center top is the outline of the Roman camp built at the time of the siege of Masada. The palace complex is at the far end of the plateau, facing away from the camera

MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,A model of the palace complex built by Herod the Great
A model of the palace complex built by Herod the Great
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,A model of the buildings that covered the plateau at the time of Herod the Great
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,A model of the buildings that covered the plateau at the time of Herod the Great
A model of the buildings that covered the plateau at the time of Herod the Great. 
These included living quarters, storerooms, a synagogue, a large library, a bath complex, kitchens, etc.
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,The palace buildings
The palace buildings faced out towards 
a spectacular view across the valley beneath
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,building constraints on a site like this were immense
The building constraints on a site like this were immense
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,the building on the middle terrace of the North Palace
View from above of the building on the middle terrace of the North Palace
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,One of the main rooms in the Palace
One of the main rooms in the Palace
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,ground plan of buildings on the plateau of Masada
1 Upper end of the 'Snake Path'
2 Triclinium/dining room
3 Storerooms
4 Bath complex
5 Northern palace
6 Administrative buildings
7 Observation point
8 Synagogue
9 Casemate wall
10 Spot where the Roman assault ramp reached the wall
11 West entrance
12 Workshops
13 Western palace
17 Living quarters
19 Water cistern
20 South fortress
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Remains of the bathhouse at Masada
Remains of the bathhouse at Masada. 
The columns supporting the floor allowed warm air to be circulated under-floor, heating the room above. 
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Women's bathhouse at Pompeii
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,pipes installed in the wall cavity at Masada
(Left) Women's bathhouse at Pompeii, built to a design similar to the one at Masada. Bathing was a necessary part of Jewish ritual and daily life, but a bathhouse as sumptuous as this would only have been found in the palaces built by Herod the Great.
(Right) This reconstruction at Masada shows the pipes installed in the wall cavity, to circulate warm air

MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,thermal bath at Masada
 Remains of the thermal bath at Masada, with murals still intact

MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Masada wall paintings
Judaic law forbad representation of living creatures, so the Masada wall paintings were more restrained than Roman murals

MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Mosaics in the bath complex
Mosaics in the bath complex
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,the triclinium (dining area) in the Western Palace
Remains of the triclinium (dining area) in the Western Palace
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Niches for scrolls in remains of the library at Masada
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,the niches as they would have been
(Left) Niches for scrolls in remains of the library at Masada; (right) artist's impression of the niches as they would have been
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Stairwell with mosaic
Stairwell with mosaic
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,mosaic in the landing above the stairwell
Close-up of the mosaic in the landing above the stairwel
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,store house complex at Masada
The store house complex at Masada
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Pigeon coops
Pigeon coops provided a source of fresh meat, and the pigeons were also used to carry messages
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,a network of large, rock-hewn cisterns
The water supply for Masada was provided by a network of large, rock-hewn cisterns (see above). 
They filled during the winter with rainwater  and could be relied upon in time of siege.
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Herod built a synagogue at Masada,see ground plan
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,synagogue at Masada
Herod built a synagogue at Masada, measuring 12.5x10.5meters (see plan above left). It had tiers of plastered benches around the walls, on which people sat as they listened to prayers, readings and discussions.
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,locations of main interest features
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,Site of the Roman camp at Masada
Site of the Roman camp at Masada, showing the outline of the fosse or ditch surrounding the camp, with an inner rampart or agger built up with the excavated earth. At the time of the siege, the outer wall would have been surmounted by a palisade or vallum.
 The camp would have been divided into three main areas, for the commander's quarters, for stores and workshops, and for the barracks. 
MASADA,BIBLE ARCHITECTURE,ramp built by the Romans to give them access to the rebels
The ramp built by the Romans to give them access to the rebels sheltering behind the walls of Masada. This ramp allowed the Romans to move a battering ram up to the gates of the fortress.
THE SITE
Masada is situated on top of an isolated rock cliff at the western end of the Judean Desert, overlooking the Dead Sea. It is a place of gaunt and majestic beauty. The boat-shaped mountain rises 434meters (1,424ft) above the level of the Dead Sea. The land falls steeply away on every side, making it a natural fortress.
It was first fortified by the Hasmoneans in about 100BC, but it is most famous for the palace built there by King Herod the Great, and for the famous last stand made there by Jewish rebels against the Roman army.

Herod's construction included two ornate palaces, one of which was on three levels, heavy outer walls surrounding the plateau, extensive storehouses, barracks and armory, and aqueducts which brought water to immense cisterns holding nearly 750,000litres (200,000 gallons) of water.
The site and its defenses made Masada nearly impregnable. It took a Roman army of almost 15,000 soldiers, fighting a defending force of less than 1,000 (many of whom were women and children), almost two years to subdue. The Romans only succeeded in taking the fortress by building a sloping siege ramp to move a battering ram up to the walls. Once there they would be able to breach the walls and subdue the defenders by sheer weight of numbers. The rebels, however, preferred death at their own hands. When the Romans finally entered Masada, they were greeted by silence. 
THE HERODIAN FORTRESS
The rhomboid, flat plateau of Masada measures 600x300meters. The casemate wall (two parallel walls with partitions dividing the space between them into rooms), is 1400meters long and 4meters wide. It was built along the edge of the plateau, above the steep cliffs, and had a number of towers. Three narrow, winding paths led from below to fortified gates. The water supply was guaranteed by a network of large, rock-hewn cisterns on the northwestern side of the hill. They filled during the winter with rainwater flowing in streams from the mountain on this side. Cisterns on the summit supplied the immediate needs of the residents of Masada and could be relied upon in time of siege.
To maintain interior coolness in the hot and dry climate of Masada, the many buildings of various sizes and functions had thick walls constructed of layers of hard dolomite stone, covered with plaster. The higher northern side of Masada was densely built up with structures for an administrative center. It included storehouses, a large bathhouse and comfortable living quarters for officials and their families.
KING HEROD'S PALACE
On the northern edge of the steep cliff, with a splendid view, stood the elegant, intimate, private palace-villa of the king. It was separated from the fortress by a wall, affording total privacy and security. This northern palace consists of three terraces, luxuriously built, with a narrow, rock-cut staircase connecting them. On the upper terrace, several rooms served as living quarters. In front of them was a semi-circular balcony with two concentric rows of columns. The rooms were paved with black and white mosaics in geometric patterns.

The two lower terraces were intended for entertainment and relaxation. The middle terrace had two concentric walls with columns, covered by a roof; this created a portico around a central courtyard. The lowest, square terrace had an open central courtyard, surrounded by porticos. Its columns were covered with fluted plaster and had Corinthian capitals. The lower parts of the walls were covered in frescos of multicolored geometrical patterns, or were painted in imitation of marble. There was a small private bathhouse on this terrace. 
STOREHOUSE COMPLEX
This consisted of two rows of long halls opening onto a central corridor. The floor of the storerooms was covered with thick plaster and the roofing consisted of wooden beams covered with hard plaster. Here, large numbers of broken storage jars which once contained oil, wine, grains and other foodstuffs were found.

THE LARGE BATHOUSE
Elaborately built, it probably served the guests and senior officials of Masada. It consisted of a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and several rooms, all with mosaic or tiled floors and some with frescoed walls. The largest of the rooms was the hot room (caldarium). Its suspended floor was supported by rows of low pillars, making it possible to blow hot air from the furnace outside, under the floor and through clay pipes along the walls, to heat the room to the desired temperature.

THE WESTERN PALACE
The Western Palace is the largest building on Masada, covering over 4,000 square meters. Located along the center of the western casemate wall, it served as the main administration center of the fortress, as well as the kings ceremonial palace. It consisted of four wings: an elaborate royal apartment, a service and workshop section, storerooms and an administrative unit. In the royal apartment, many of the rooms were built around a central courtyard. On its southern side was a large room with two Ionic columns supporting the roof over the wide opening into the courtyard. Its walls were decorated with moulded panels of white stucco. On the eastern side were several rooms with splendid colored mosaic floors. One of these, the largest room, had a particularly decorative mosaic floor with floral and geometric patterns within several concentric square bands. This room may have been King Herod's throne room, the seat of authority when he was in residence at Masada.

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